Why is Jumu`ah Prayer Held on Friday?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: Do we know why Salah Jumu`a is on fridays? I mean, the jews believe that God created the universe in 6 days and rested on the seventh, so they also have to rest that day.

My religion-teacher (who don’t believe in any religion) told our class that the friday prayer is established on fridays because that was the day where people were gathered in the market anyway. Is this true?

Answer: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

I pray that you are well, insha’Allah.

The Friday prayer (salat al-jumu`ah) is held on Fridays due to the explicit Qur’anic command to do so, ‘O ye who believe! When the call is heard for the prayer of the day of congregation, haste unto remembrance of Allah and leave your trading. That is better for you if ye did but know’ [62:9]

The ‘day of congregation’, here, refers to Friday.

The Prohibition of Trading at the time of the Friday Prayer

Imam Abu Bakr al-Jassas mentions, in his commentary of the Mukhtasar al-Tahawi, trade, specifically, is not intended here, rather, anything else which busies one from attending the Friday prayer would also take the same ruling.

Moreover, trading was specifically mentioned here because of the fact that Friday noon was a busy time for traders; so it is as if they are being told, hasten to the trade of the hereafter (akhirah), leave the trading of this world (dunya) and hurry unto the remembrance of God. [Nasafi, Madarik al-Tanzil wa Haqa’iq al-Ta’wil]

The Virtue of Fridays

It is related from the Messenger of God (Allah bless him and give him peace), that he said: “Verily the most virtuous, of your days, is Friday. Send abundant blessings upon me on Fridays because they are presented to me on that day.” [Abu Dawud]

In summary, Fridays are singled out, more emphatically, as days for sending blessings upon the Messenger of God (Allah bless him and give him peace) specifically because the blessings (salawat) are presented to him, accepted. [Abadi, `Awn al-Ma`bud Sharh Sunan Abi Dawud]

And Allah knows best.

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The grand confidant of the secrets of the Prophetﷺ

Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه‎) became a crystal mirror to reflect the Prophet’s heart. Thus, he was the prime example of unconditional surrender to the Prophet’s spirituality. Due to such great surrender, everything that belonged to the Prophetﷺ had deep significance for him, and so he became the first resource for Companions who sought to discern the true meaning of the words and acts of the Prophetﷺ. He truly understood the ultimate meaning of the messages of the Prophetﷺ.

The verse, “This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My favor on you and chosen for you Islam as a religion…” (Ma’ida 5:3) was revealed during what proved to be the Farewell Pilgrimage of the Prophetﷺ. Everybody but Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه‎) was happy. They all thought the verse was announcing the perfect state of the religion of Islam. Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه‎) alone discerned that the verse meant that Allah would soon take the Prophetﷺ from them. (1)

During his last illness the Prophetﷺ could no longer lead the prayers, for he was too weak to stand. He therefore chose Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه‎) to lead the prayers. One day he felt better and returned to the mosque. After giving advice to various Companions, he remarked, “Allah offered one of His servants a choice between this world and what He has with Himself, and that servant chose what Allah has with Himself.”

Upon hearing these words, Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه‎) felt downcast, and wept bitterly. With his wise and tender heart, he realized that this was a farewell speech. Since he was the prime confidant of the secrets of the Prophetﷺ, he noticed what others were unable to understand. He began to cry out like a wailing reed, “O Prophet, you are dearer to me than my mother and father! We sacrifice our fathers, mothers, lives, properties, and children for you!” (2)

No one in the congregation was aware that the Prophetﷺ was in the mood to leave this world. No one understood why Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه‎) was crying. They asked each other, “Why should this old man cry when the Prophetﷺ merely spoke of a person who preferred to go to Allah?”(3) They did not realize that the servant who preferred to go to Allah when given the chance of staying in the world was the Prophet himself. They were unable to sense what Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه‎) sensed.

The Prophetﷺ kept talking, both to console Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه‎) and to tell the Companions to appreciate Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه‎). “We have returned all favors done us at the same level or a higher one except for the favors Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه‎) has done us!.. He has done so many favors for me that Allah Himself will return his favors on the Day of Judgment. Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه‎) is among those most dedicated to me in companionship and property. If I were to take an intimate friend other than my Lord, I would take Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه‎). But what binds us is the brotherhood of Islam.”

Then the Prophetﷺ talked about his forthcoming death: “Let no door leading to Prophet’s mosque remain open except for Abu Bakr’s, as I see a glorious sign over his door…” (4)

So, all doors were closed at that sorrowful time except for Abu Bakr’s. These words of the Prophetﷺ meant that the door of special closeness to the Messenger of Allah can be opened only by unconditional loyalty, dedication, commitment, devotion, friendship, and love.

References:

(1) Elmalılı, III, 1569.

(2) Ahmad, III, 91.

(3) Bukhari, Salah, 80.

(4) Bukhari, al-Ashab al-Nabi 3, al-Manaqib al-Ansar 45, Salah 80; Muslim, al- Fada’il al-ashab al-nabi 2; Tirmidhi, al-Manaqib 15; Ibn al-Sa`d: II 227.

SHABAAN 15TH NIGHT ( Laylatul Bara’ah or Laylatun Nisfe min Sha’ban) – VIRTUES AND ADVISE

Many Muslims in various countries pray on the 15th night of Shabaan, and ask for forgiveness of their sins and on the following day proceed to fast. To do this is in no way against the Qur’an nor the Sunnah. There are many narrations that support its validity.

There is one night in the year when Allah ﷻ gives the knowledge to the Angels, about what is going to happen in the following year, for example, who is going to die, who will be born, who will be ill and how much food people will have in the year, etc.

Below is an article taken from “Suffah Foundation” (In a slightly modified form)

This article is split into the following categories:

1) PDF containing all the supporting evidences on the specific virtues of 15th Sha’baan;

2) Narrations by leading Salafi authorities ibn Taymiyah and al-Albani with book and page scans;

3) Where did the narrations for Night of Mid-Shabaan Come from?

4)  Answers to Objections raised.

1. Detailed Article Containing all Narrations on 15th Shabaan.

The specific virtues of 15th Shabaan which makes that day and night special and distinguished, according to the Quran, Authentic Sunnah, and the Statements of the Imams of the Ummah.. Read detailed article listing all the narrations by clicking *PDF here*


2. Opinions of leading Salafi Authorities on 15th Shabaan.

The below are some of the narrations by leading Salafi authorities.

  •  Two followers of Ibn Taymiyah and Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab Al Najdi, are Hafidhh Abdullah Rawpari and Thanaa’ullah Amritsari, both state that to worship on the 15th night of Shabaan is not Bid’ah and the person who does Ibada (Worship) on this night will obtain reward for it. The narrations concerning this night are weak but this does not matter since weak Ahadith are acceptable for virtuous actions.
    [Fatawa Ahl-e-Hadith by Hafidhh Rawpari and Fatawa Thanaa’iya by Thana’ullahAmritsari, chapter on fasting]
  • Ibn Tayymiya writes:

The excellency regarding the 15th of Shabaan is an area of dispute between the Scholars, some of them say that there is no significance of this night, but Imam Ahmed recognises the excellency of this night, our other Hanbli Scholars also agree with Imam Ahmed. There are Ahadith on this night being significant, some of them are from Sunnan (Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah) and the other Ahadeeth books as well.
[Iqtidah Siratul Mustaqeem page 203 by Ibn Taymiyah]

Ibn-Taimiyyah was also asked about praying in the 15th night of Sha’ban. He replied:

وأما ليلة النصف فقد روى في فضلها أحاديث وآثار ونقل عن طائفة من السلف أنهم كانوا يصلون فيها، فصلاة الرجل فيها وحده قد تقدمه فيه سلف وله فيه حجة فلا ينكر مثل هذا

Translation: As for the 15th night of Shabaan, there are many narrations and Athar (quotes from the Sahabah) regarding its virtue. It has been reported of the salaf that they prayed in this night. Therefore, praying alone on this night, having precedence in the salaf, is sufficient evidence and something of this kind surely cannot be denied.[Fatawa Ibn Taymiyyah, Majmua al Fatawa, Volume No. 23, Page No. 132]

See Scan 01 at the bottom of this page

  • Ibn-Taimiyyah in another place was asked the same question and he replied:

وسنل عن صلاة نصف شعبان فاجاب ازا صلئ الانسان ليلة النصف وحده اوفئ جماعته خاصته كما كان يفل جماعته خاصته كما كان يفعل طوانف من السلف فهواحسن

Translation: If one prays on this night alone or in a select company of people as many groups amongst the salaf did, “then it is good”. [Fatawa Ibn Taymiyyah, Majmua al Fatawa, Volume 23, Page 131]

 See Scan 01 at the bottom of this page

  • The Salafi Scholar Al-Mubarakpuri, the author of famous Sharah of Tirimdhi i.e. Tuhfa tul Ahwadi says

اعلم أنه قد ورد في فضيلة ليلة النصف من شعبان عدة أحاديث مجموعها يدل على أن لها أصلا

Translation: You should know that a sufficient number of hadith has been narrated confirming “the virtues of the 15th night of Sha`ban”. All these ahaadith prove that it has a basis.[Tuhfa tl Ahwadhi (3/380)]

After relating many Ahadith about the importance of this night he says:

فهذه الأحاديث بمجموعها حجة على من زعم أنه لم يثبت في فضيلة ليلة النصف من شعبان شيء والله تعالى أعلم

Translation: The sum of all these ahadith is strong evidence against the one “who thinks there is no proof” of the virtue of the 15th night of Sha`ban” and Allah knows best. [Tuhfatul Ahwadhi Volume 003: Page. 365-367]

  • Now here is “Decisive” Proof from “Nasir ud din Albani” the Chief Muhadith of Salafis

” يطلع الله تبارك و تعالى إلى خلقه ليلة النصف من شعبان , فيغفر لجميع خلقه
إلا لمشرك أو مشاحن ” .

قال الألباني في ” السلسلة الصحيحة ” 3 / 135 :

حديث صحيح , روي عن جماعة من الصحابة من طرق مختلفة يشد بعضها بعضا و هم # معاذ ابن جبل و أبو ثعلبة الخشني و عبد الله بن عمرو و أبي موسى الأشعري و أبي هريرة و أبي بكر الصديق و عوف ابن مالك و عائشة # .

1 – أما حديث معاذ فيرويه مكحول عن مالك بن يخامر عنه مرفوعا به . أخرجه ابن
أبي عاصم في ” السنة ” رقم ( 512 – بتحقيقي )

Translation: Allah turns towards his creation in the Night of “MID-SHABAN” and He forgives all of them except for a Mushrik and one who hates other people

Albani says in his “Silsilat as Sahiha”:(This is a) “SAHIH HADITH” narrated by group of Sahaba with different routes (Isnaad) such as from Muadh bin Jabal (ra), Abu Thalbah (ra) Abdullah bin Amr (ra), Abu Musa al Ashari (ra), Abu Hurraira (ra), Abu Bakr as Saddiq (ra), Awf bin Malik (ra) and Aisha (ra).The Hadith of Muadh bin Jabal (ra) comes through Makhul from Malik bin Yakhamir and It is “MARFU” narrated by Ibn Abi Asim in his As-Sunnah Hadith #512 [Nasir ud din Albani in Silsilat as Sahiha, Volume No. 3, Page No. 135 #1144]

See Scan 02 at the bottom of this page

Albani further declares 2 more ahadith to be “Hassan” and 1 to be “Mursil Jayyid”


Where did the narrations for Night of Mid-Shabaan Come from?

“AS FOR THE NIGHT OF MID-SHA’BAN, THE TABI’EEN IN SHĀM, LIKE KHALID IBN MA’DAN, MAKHUL, LUQMAN IBN ‘AMIR, AND OTHERS, USED TO HONOR THIS NIGHT AND STRIVE HARD IN THEIR WORSHIP IN IT. IT IS FROM THEM THAT THE PEOPLE LEARNED THE VIRTUE OF THIS NIGHT AND LEARNED TO HONOR IT.”
– IBN RAJAB AL-HANBALI, LATA’IF AL-MA’ARIF (1)

“AS FOR THE NIGHT OF MID-SHA’BAN, HADITHS AND EARLY REPORTS HAVE BEEN TRANSMITTED ABOUT ITS VIRTUE, AND IT HAS BEEN TRANSMITTED THAT A GROUP OF THE SALAF (RIGHTEOUS PREDECESSORS) USED TO DO EXTRA PRAYERS IN IT.”
– IBN TAYMIYYA, MAJMU’ AL-FATAWA (2)

The passages above show us that in the first century of Islam, it was the people of Shām who were known to celebrate the the Night of Mid-Sha’ban. Those who taught them that the Night of Mid-Sha’ban was a special night, and taught them to do extra prayers in this night, were scholars from the generation of the Tabi’een, those who studied under the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace).

Now the question is, why was it in particular the Tabi’een of Shām that taught this?

Because they took it from the great Companion Muadh ibn Jabal (may Allah be pleased with him) who used to teach in Damascus. The Companions of the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) spread to different parts of the world, and took with them the teachings that they heard from the Messenger of Allah. Because of this, in the first century of Islam, different regions within the Muslim world had different practices and fiqh, based on the different Companions that they learned from.

When the caliph Harun al-Rashid asked Imam Malik if he may force all the people of Islam to follow Malik’s book the Muwatta, Imam Malik refused this strongly, telling him that the different Companions of the Messenger of Allah had dispersed to different lands, each carrying different hadiths and different teachings; the people of each region followed the way of the Companions who went to them, and they were all correct. After some while, the hadiths of all the different regions would be brought together and shared with the entire Muslim community.

Muadh ibn Jabal (may Allah be pleased with him)

The most prominent Companion to teach in Damascus was Mu’adh ibn Jabal. The Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said: “The most knowledgeable person in my Ummah of what is Halal and what is Haram is Mu’adh ibn Jabal.” He (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) also said, “Muadh will be at the forefront of all the scholars on the Day of Judgment.” Many hadiths describe Muadh as the leader of the scholars of Islam on the Day of Judgement.

When he came to Shām, the other Companions there used to have such respect for him that they would always turn to him to solve any problem. Even though he was the youngest of the Companions there, they would all look at him with awe. He always sat quietly and silently, but stood out with his radiant face. When a disagreement arose they would go ask him, and hover around him. People said that a love for him would fall on their hearts upon seeing him and they said that when he spoke it was as if light and pearls were coming out of his mouth. The other Companions likened him to the Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him).
It was Muadh, this most outstanding of scholars from among the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), who taught to the people of Shām the sayings of the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) about the virtues of the Night of Mid-Sha’ban.

There, in Shām, Mu’adh ibn Jabal narrated that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said:

God looks at His creation during the Night of Mid-Sha‘ban and forgives all of them, except an idolator and one who harbours rancour.

This above hadith was narrated on the authority of Mu’adh by Ibn Hibban in his Sahih. It was also narrated by Ibn Abi Asim in al-Sunna and al-Tabarani in al-Kabir and al-Awsat. (3)

If we look at the chain of this hadith, we see that the Syrian Malik b. Yukhamir (from the city of Homs) took this hadith from Mu’adh ibn Jabal, and through him it reached Makhul. As we saw above, Ibn Rajab stated that Makhul was one of those who taught people the virtue of this blessed night and used to strive to do extra worship on this night.

According to Imam Zuhri and other great scholars of that age, Makhul was the greatest scholar of Shām in his age, and one of the four greatest scholars amongst that entire blessed generation of young Tabi’een. Makhul taught this hadith to the Damascene Thawban, who taught it to two people mentioned in this chain: his son Ibn Thawban, and the Imam of Shām, al-Awza’i. Al-Awza’i was the imam of Shām of his time in terms of Jurisprudence, like Malik in Medina, Abu Hanifa in Kufa, or Ibn Hanbal in Baghdad. The Awza’i school of jurisprudence became the main school of jurisprudence in Shām and spread from there to the Andalus, where it was the most widespread school of jurisprudence there for a time.

As you can see, the people in this chain are all from Shām. That is why the hadith master al-Tabarani, himself from Palestine in Shām, narrated this hadith in his book Musnad al-Shāmiyyeen, a collection of hadiths narrated by Tabi’een who lived in Shām and their students. Al-Tabarani took the hadith from Muhammad ibn Abi Zur’a of Damascus, with his chain back to Imam Awza’i and Ibn Thawban. (4)

Makhul also received this same hadith from Kathir ibn Murra al-Hadrami, a Tabi’i who lived in Homs. Kathir reported the hadith as a mursal report directly from the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), meaning that he did not specify which Companion he took it from. Al-Bayhaqi narrated the hadith through this chain in Shu’ab al-Iman and stated that it was a mursal jayyid (strong hadith, despite being mursal). (5) Kathir was known for often leaving out the name of the Companion from whom he took prophetic traditions, but we do know that one of his main teachers was Muadh ibn Jabal (may Allah be pleased with him).

Others Who Brought Hadiths About this Night to Shām

The people of Shām did not only learn this hadith from Muadh ibn Jabal, but from another Companion: Abu Musa al-Ash’ari (may Allah be pleased with him). Who narrated this hadith from him? Al-Dahhak ibn Abd al-Rahman, from Shām. This chain continues being narrated by scholars from Shām until Rashid b. Sa’id al-Ramli of Palestine, Shām, who taught this hadith to Ibn Majah, who narrated it in his Sunan. (6)

Ibn Majah also narrated the following hadith on the authority of Ali ibn Abu Talib (may Allah be pleased with him):

“If it is the Night of Mid-Shaʿbān then stand in prayer during its night and fast its day. For God descends to the heavens of the earth when the sun sets and says, ‘Is there anyone who seeks forgiveness so that I may forgive him? Is there anyone who seeks provision so that I may grant him provision? Is there anyone afflicted so that I may remove his affliction? Is there not such and such,’ until the dawn breaks.”

Who narrated this hadith from Ali? His nephew Abdullah ibn Ja’far, who used to travel every year to Damascus. He passed on the hadith to his son Mu’awiya, who was born in Damascus. (7)

As you can see, the people of Shām gave great importance to this night and paid special attention to narrating the hadiths about it, and it all would have started with the Prophet’s great Companion Muadh ibn Jabal (may Allah be pleased with him). There were other hadiths of course about this night that were spread by people of different lands. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, for example, narrated a hadith similar to that of Mu’adh ibn Jabal about the virtue of that night (with some difference in wording) through a chain made up of Egyptians, on the authority of Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-As (may Allah be pleased with him), the Companion whose father opened Egypt to Islam. (8)

The Early Scholars of Shām

Now if we return to the hadith of Muadh ibn Jabal (may Allah be pleased with him) and the scholars of Shām who narrated it, we see those very same narrators are the ones from whom we have received explanations of this hadith. Thus these scholars used to not only narrate this hadith but comment upon it and explain it.

Abdullah ibn al-Mubarak (may Allah be pleased with him) said:
I heard al-Awza’i explain the mushāhin (one who harbours rancour) as: every person of innovation, who has left the jamā’a (majority) and the Ummah. (9)

Umar ibn Hani’ said: I asked Ibn Thawban about the meaning of mushāhin (one who harbours rancour). He said,
“He is the one who has left the Sunna of his Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), who speaks ill of his Ummah, and spills their blood.” (10)

As we have seen above, those two figures, Imam Awza’i and Ibn Thawban, are the ones who narrated the hadith of Muadh from Thawban, and passed it on to other scholars of Shām.

Conclusion

We learn from the above the importance that the people of the blessed land of Shām gave to the Night of Mid-Sha’ban and its day, and we learn that its origin is with the great Companion, the leader of all the scholars of Islam, Muadh ibn Jabal (may Allah be pleased with him). The people of Shām took this hadith from him and taught it to others and explained it. We also know that they learned from this hadith (and others) that one should strive to do extra worship on this night. This was the guidance of the Tabi’een which they took from the Companions who came to Shām and instilled in them the love and veneration of this blessed night.

To repeat the words of Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali:

“The Tabi’een in Shām, like Khalid ibn Ma’dan, Makhul, Luqman ibn ‘Amir, and others, used to honor this night and strive hard in their worship in it. It is from them that the people learned the virtue of this night and learned to honor it.”

According to Ibn Rajab, Khalid ibn Ma’dan, Luqman ibn ‘Amir and other notable Tabi’een from Shām recommended for people to congregate in the mosques in this night to perform extra worship together. They would wear their best clothes, put kohl on their eyes, perfume themselves using incense and then spend that night in the mosque. He further stated that the great Imam in Khorasan, Ishaq ibn Rahwayh was asked about this practice of the people of Shām. Ibn Rahwayh was known as the “Imam of the East” and the “Master of Hadith Memorizers.” He was a colleague of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal who called Ibn Rahwayh one of the imams of the Muslims. He was a teacher of Imam Bukhari and was one of the leading figures of the Ahl al-Hadith movement. Imam Ibn Rahwayh supported the practice and responded that praying extra prayers in the mosque in congregation on that night is not an innovation. Imam al-Awza’i on the other hand, while also advocating spending that night in extra worship, was of the opinion that it was preferable not to do it in the mosque. (11)

May Allah bless and reward all the Companions and their Followers, and all those hadith narrators and scholars who have preserved for us the Sunna of the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), so that it could reach us centuries later, in all corners of the world, in order for us to be able to implement it and act upon it.

References
(1) Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali, Lata’if al-Ma’arif, Beirut: Dar Ibn Hazm, 2004, p. 137.
(2) He continues to say: “If a person performs extra prayers on the night of the middle of Sha’ban on his own or in a private congregation, as groups of the salaf used to do, that is best.” However, he disapproved of a congregation of an entire town in the main mosque praying an innovated prayer with a set number, for example, one hundred cycles with one thousand Sura Ikhlas, calling that an innovation. (See Ibn Taymiyya, Majmu’ al-Fatawa, vol. 23, p. 132). An almost identical statement is repeated in his workIqtida’ al-sirat al-mustaqim where he added that despite the fact that some scholars from Hijaz denied the virtue of this night, the majority of the people of knowledge from among the Hanbali scholars and others believe in its special virtues, and the texts of Ahmad ibn Hanbal are evidence for that, as well as the many prophetic traditions and practices of the salaf (See Ibn Taymiyya, Iqtida’ al-sirat al-mustaqim, Beirut: Dar ‘Alam al-Kitab, 1999, vol. 2, pp. 136-7). It should be noted in this regard that Shām was always one of the main centers of the Hanbali school.
(3) Sahih Ibn Hibban, vol. 12, p. 481. Its men are all trustworthy.
After evaluating eight different chains for this hadith, al-Albani concludes: ‘The hadith, with its collective chains of transmission, is authentic (sahih) without doubt.’ Al-Albani, Silsilat al-Ahadith al-Sahihah,Riyadh: Maktabah al-Ma‘arif, 1979, vol. 3, p. 138.
(4) Al-Tabarani, Musnad al-Shāmiyyeen, Beirut: Mu’assassat al-Risala, 1984, vol. 1, p. 128.
(5) Al-Bayhaqi, Shu’ab al-Iman, Riyadh: Maktabat al-Rushd, 2003, vol. 5, p. 349.
(6) Sunan Ibn Majah, Cairo: Dar Ihya’ al-Kutub al-Arabiyya, Vol. 1, p. 445.
(7) Sunan Ibn Majah, Cairo: Dar Ihya’ al-Kutub al-Arabiyya, Vol. 1, p. 444. However it should be noted that the chain of this particular narration contains one person who is considered weak. Though Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali considered this tradition to be weak, he narrated it in Lata’if al-Ma’arif in support of fasting the day of the 15th of Sha’ban. He further stated that in either case, it is one of the three middle days of every month known as the ‘Days of the White Nights’ in which fasting is recommended. These are the 13th, 14th, and 15th of every lunar month (see Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali, Lata’if al-Ma’arif, Beirut: Dar Ibn Hazm, 2004, p. 136).
(8) Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Beirut: Mu’assassat al-Risala, 2001, vol. 11, pp. 216-7.
(9), (10) Shaykh Salih al-Ja’fari (ed.), Risalat al-Kashf wal Bayaan ‘an Fadaail Laylat an-Nisf min Sha’banby al-hafiz Shaykh Salim al-Sanhouri, who was summarizing the teachings of his teacher, the Seal of the Hadith Masters of his age, Shaykh Najm al-Din al-Ghayti. Cairo: Dar Jawami’ al-Kalim, pp. 14-5.
Ishaq ibn Rahwayh likewise said in his Musnad: Al-Awza’i explained the word mushāhin (in this hadith) as the innovator who parts ways with the rest of the ummah.
(11) Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali, Lata’if al-Ma’arif, Beirut: Dar Ibn Hazm, 2004, p. 137.


Answers to the Objections

Q1) Sha’ban is a blessed month and the Messenger of Allah (SallAllahu ‘alayhi wasallam) would observe fast throughout this month

No disputes with this statement for the beloved Prophet (sal Allahu alaihi wa sallam) indeed used to fast most of the year round abundantly.

Though there is caution for those who are not regular keepers of fasting to abstain from fasting in the second half of the month to avoid becoming weak for Ramadan:

The Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu alaihi wa sallam) said, “When Sha’baan is half over, do not fast.” [Sunan Abu Dawood and al-Tirmidhi and others]

Q2) There is no Qur’anic evidence for the excellence of the 15th of Sha’ban. 

There is one night in the year when Allah Almighty gives the knowledge to the Angels, about what is going to happen in the following year, for example, who is going to die, who will be born, who will be ill and how much food people will have in the year, etc.

Ha, Meem. By the clear Book, Indeed, We sent it down during a blessed night. Surely, We are the Warner. In that night is made distinct every precise matter. By Our command; surely, it is We Who send. [Surah Dukhan 44, Verses 1-5]

The Majority of the scholars of Islam say:

That night is Laila-tul-Qadar in the month of Ramadan but the other scholars like Ikramah who is student of Abdullah bin Abbas (Radi allahu anho) says that night is 15th of Shabaan. There is a Hadith which Imam Tabari (Radi allahu anho) writes: Holy Prophet (May Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, ‘From Shabaan to Shabaan there is a decision made of who is going to die, be married and some people get married but their names are written in the death program. [Tafsir Tabari, under Surah Dukhan, verse 1 by Imam Tabari]

This narration is Ikrama’s, the other scholar’s statements are proven that 15th night of Shabaan is a holy night but there is no doubt that Allah Almighty gives the full knowledge to the Angels in the night of Laila-tul-Qadar, which is in the month of Ramadan.

If we read all the narration’s regarding Laila-tul-Qadar and the 15th night of Shabaan we can reach the conclusion that the yearly program started on the 15th night of Shabaan and completed on Laila-tul-Qadar. There might be a suspicion as to ‘why does a year program take so long from Shabaan to Ramadan? The answer is Allah knows the best. No one can understand for sure the philosophy of Allah’s work. He made the worlds in six days. Who knows why He took six days to make the worlds. The main point is, to simply say there is no Quranic evidence for the excellence of 15th Shabaan is an injustice and gross accusation. Earlier in the article we have shown that 15th Shabaan was considered a virtuous and meritorious night by some of the Sahaba and Tabieen. To examine all of the above statements consult these books:

“Tafsir Tabari, Fathul Qadeer by Qadi Shawkani, Tafsir Qurtabi, Tafsir Bagawi, Tafsir Mazhari, Tafsir Ma’ah riyful Qur’an, Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Tafsir Zia-ul-Qur’an under the verse of Surah Al- Dukhan verse 1 to 5”

Q3) The opinion that sustenance, death etc is determined on the night of the 15th of Sha’ban is false. 

As stated in Answer 2 above, some Tafsir Masters have written that the first few verses of Surah Dukhan is referring to the night of 15th Shabaan:

“Ha, Meem. By the clear Book, Indeed, We sent it down during a blessed night. Surely, We are the Warner. In that night is made distinct every precise matter. By Our command; surely, it is We Who send.” [Surah Dukhan 44, Verses 1-5]

It is based on this surah that some scholars have written that on the night of 15th Shabaan Allah Almighty gives the knowledge to the Angels, about what is going to happen in the following year, for example, who is going to die, who will be born, who will be ill and how much food and sustenance people will have in the year, etc. Furthermore, the Holy Prophet (May Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, ‘From Shabaan to Shabaan there is a decision made of who is going to die, be married and some people get married but their names are written in the death program. [Tafsir Tabari, under Surah Dukhan, verse 1 by Imam Tabari].

Q4) Most hadith on the merit of the 15th of Sha’ban are either very weak or fabricated. However, there is a narration which has been argued by some scholars (then supported collectively) reaches the level of acceptability. The hadith states that Allah descends to the lowest heaven and forgives the sins of everyone except one who associates partners with Allah and one who harbors enmity on that night. 

The article we have provided shows the authenticity of all the various narrations on 15th Shabaan. One can read them all here. It is a deception to state that most are weak. We suggest all brothers and sisters to read the narrations themselves here.

Q5) All hadith which describe specific prayers to be done on this night are fabrications and innovations. 

Ibn Majah (rah) narrated the following hadith on the authority of Ali ibn Abu Talib (may Allah be pleased with him):

“If it is the Night of Mid-Shaʿbān then stand in prayer during its night and fast its day. For God descends to the heavens of the earth when the sun sets and says, ‘Is there anyone who seeks forgiveness so that I may forgive him? Is there anyone who seeks provision so that I may grant him provision? Is there anyone afflicted so that I may remove his affliction? Is there not such and such,’ until the dawn breaks.” [Sunan Ibn Majah, Cairo: Dar Ihya’ al-Kutub al-Arabiyya, Vol. 1, p. 444]

Who narrated this hadith from Ali? His nephew Abdullah ibn Ja’far, who used to travel every year to Damascus. He passed on the hadith to his son Mu’awiya, who was born in Damascus. We have already shown in the article above the connection between night of mid-Shabaan and the Salaf-as-saliheen of Damascus.

However it should be noted that the chain of this particular narration contains one person who is considered weak. Though Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali considered this tradition to be weak, he narrated it in Lata’if al-Ma’arif in support of fasting the day of the 15th of Sha’ban. He further stated that in either case, it is one of the three middle days of every month known as the ‘Days of the White Nights’ in which fasting is recommended. These are the 13th, 14th, and 15th of every lunar month (see Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali, Lata’if al-Ma’arif, Beirut: Dar Ibn Hazm, 2004, p. 136).

The night of the 15th Sha’ban, is a very blessed night, this is proven from the Holy Qur’an and Ahadith. In this night Allah ﷻ turns specially attentive towards His servants and forgives a great deal of them. Allah ﷻ fulfils their supplications for sustenance and a pleasant life in this World and the next. Allah ﷻ fulfils the requests of the callers in this night. Due to the virtues and blessings of this night, we should supplicate for the forgiveness of the Ummah, our beloved ones and ourselves. There are narrations from approximately 17 Companions of the Prophet ﷺ with respect to the blessings of this night.

Q6) Remembering the deceased and praying for their forgiveness on 15th Shaman is Bid’ah.

This is a typical reaction of the shirk brigade and biddah bandwagon. When they are refuted from all directions and completely debunked, they are quick to change the topic and begin their rant. We will simply present one hadith about remembering the deceased and praying for their forgiveness to show it was the sunnah of the beloved Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).

It is narrated that Ummul-Mu’mineen `A’isha (may Allah be pleased with her) awoke one night to find the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him and his Household) missing, and so she went out to look for him. She found him in the Baqee` cemetery, with his head raised to the Heavens [it is recommended in general to visit cemeteries for the purpose of reminding ourselves of death, and to ask Allah to forgive the deceased Muslims]. After helping to further reassure her, it is reported that he said, “Surely Allah, the Possessor of Blessings, the Exalted, descends to the lowest heaven [with a meaning appropriate to Allah’s majesty; not to be likened to the descending of finite, spatial, created things] on the night of mid-Sha`ban, and forgives more [people] than the the hairs on the sheep of [the tribe of] Kalb.”

[Narrated by Tirmidhi, who points out that its chain of narration is discontiguous, altough we may note that such discontiguity is not detrimental to authenticity according to some scholars. Also narrated by Ahmad, Ibn Majah and others. Ibn Rajab describes this narration as one of the best on the subject.] So once again we find a narration which mentions the virtues of mid-Shabaan.


It is recorded from the Friends of Allah [Auliya-Allah] to pray 6 cycles of ritual prayer [raka’] after the Maghrib prayer. In the first two raka’ add with the intention that with its blessing extend life with harmony. Next two for the protection from misfortunes and evil, and next two so that may Allah make us dependant on Him and no one else. After every two cycles [raka’] recite 21 times Surah Ikhlas OR once Sura Yasin (chapter 36). Rather read both and gain mounts of rewards and then recite the Supplication of Shabaan (dua’ of Shabaan) Click here for Dua in Audio and Arabic.

Spend the night, as much as possible, in worship and on the 15th of Shabaan fast. It is written in Anees-ul-Waezeen that whoever fasts on the fifteenth of Shabaan the fire of hell will not touch him.

Since the book of deeds is changed on the 15 night, if it is possible, also fast on the 14th so that the last day of the yearly deed book is spent fasting and the first day is spent fasting.


 

Attachments:

1. Scan 01 (Fatawa Ibn Taymiyyah, Volume 23)

Fatawa Ibn Taymiyah - Vol 23Fatawa Ibn Taymiyah - 15th Shabaan Scan 01Fatawa Ibn Taymiyah - 15th Shabaan Scan 02

 

2. Scan 02 (Nasir ud din Albani in Silsilat as Sahiha, Volume 3, Page No. 135, Hadith Number 1144)

Albani - 15th Shabaan

Nasir al-Albani’s slanderous declaration that the companions’ unanimous practice of 20 rak’ahs of Taraweeh is a reprehensible innovation (bid’ah)!

Article Taken from : http://www.masud.co.uk  (By Ahmed ibn Muhammad)

It has been discussed previously in Al-Albani Unveiled, and by the admission of his own followers, that al-Albani has declared the practice of 20 rak’ahs of taraweehprayer in the holy month of Ramadan to be a reprehensible innovation (bid’ah)! What concerns us here is not the actual number of rak’ahs, but the consideration that he has over reached himself by declaring a known practice of the Sahaba (may Allah be pleased with them) to be a bid’ah! To any sane, sincere and objective minded reader the implication of his claim is clear, namely, he has declared the unanimous practise of the bid’ah! Allah forbid.

We will discuss, insha’Allah, what he actually said and prove to him and his blind followers that they are the ones who deliberately overlook Sahih Hadiths on this issue, as well as avoiding the practice and Consensus of the venerable Companions, and our beloved Messenger, Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) who initiated this practice and number. This issue is no doubt a critical test for those who claim to be on the path of the venerable Companions and their Succesors. May Allah be pleased with them all.

Evidence for 20 rak’ahs of Taraweeh from authentic ahadith

In the following synopsis we will provide the most authentic evidence to support the claims of the Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’i, Hanbali and Zahiri [1] schools of Islamic jurisprudence, and most importantly that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and in the unanimous view and practice of the Sahaba (may Allah be pleased with them all) the rak’ahs of taraweeh are twenty.

The narration’s that will be presented have the stamp of authentication by at least ten distinguished scholars. Al-Imam al-Hafiz Jamaluddin al-Zayla’i[2] has recorded in his book Nasb ur-Rayah[3] that:

“Al-Bayhaqi has related in al-Marifa [4]

(via the following chain of transmission):

Abu Tahir al-Faqih -> Abu Uthman al-Basri -> Abu Ahmad Muhammad ibn Abdal Wahhab -> Khalid ibn Mukhallad -> Muhammad ibn Ja’far -> Yazid ibn Khaseefah -> Sa’eeb ibn Yazid,

who said:

In the time of Umar ibn al-Khattab (radiallahu anhu) the people used to observe 20 rak’ahs and the witr.

Al-Nawawi said in al-Khulasa:

‘Its Isnad is Sahih.'”

Hafiz al-Zayla’i has also mentioned after reporting the authenticity of this Hadith, that Imam al-Bayhaqi has also reported another version of the above narration through a different channel of transmission, in his Sunan al-Kubra. The narration referred to has been mentioned in the footnotes by the council of Islamic scholars (Majlis al-Ulama) who edited Nasb ur-Rayah[5], in the following words:

(Bayhaqi) has related in al-Sunan [6] (via the following isnad):Abu Abdullah al-Hussain ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hussain finjuwayh al-Dinawari – Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ishaq al-Sunni – Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn Abdul Aziz al-Baghawi – Ali ibn al-J’ad – Ibn Abi Dhib – Yazid ibn Khaseefah – Sa’eeb ibn Yazid,

who said:

“In the time of Umar ibn al-Khattab, radiallahu anhu, they would perform 20 rak’ats in the month of Ramadan. He said (also): And they would recite the Mi’in [7] , and they would lean on their sticks in the time of Uthman ibn Affan, radiallahu anhu, from the discomfort of standing.”

All the men in the (above) isnad are trustworthy, as mentioned by the Indian research scholar, Shaykh al-Nimawi[8], in Athar al-Sunan[9].”

The evidence which proves that Umar (radiallahu anhu) ordered the practise of 20 rak’ahs has been recorded by Shaykh Ali al-Muttaqi al-Hindi[10] in the largest collection of Hadith available today: Kanz al-Ummal fi Sunan al-aqwal wal Af’al[11], as follows from Ubayy ibn Ka’b (radiallahu anhu):

Umar (radiallahu anhu) ordered him (Ubayy) to lead the people in prayer at night in Ramadan, because the people fast during the day and can not recite (the Qur’an) well, therefore it is better that you should recite (the Qur’an) during the night. I (Ubayy) asked: “O commander of the believers, this thing was not done before.” He said: “I know, but it is a good practise”, and so (Ubayy) led (the Companion’s) for 20 rak’ahs.

There are many other narration’s which prove the case for twenty rak’ahs, but some of these narrations are less authentic than others, nevertheless they are weighty enough to back each other up and raise the level of authentication to at least Hasan (good); as Shaykh Nimawi and others have verified.

For the readers benefit one may refer to the following books of Hadith for at least 25 further proofs:

  1. Muwatta Imam Malik from Yazid ibn Ruman [12]
  2. Sunan al-Kubra of Imam al-Bayhaqi [13] from: Ibn Abbas, Yazid ibn Ruman (same as Imam Malik’s narration), Suwayd ibn Ghaflah, Ali ibn Abi Talib etc. Also refer to Marifatus Sunan of al-Bayhaqi.
  3. Musannaf of Imam Abdur Razzaq [14] from: Sa’eeb ibn Yazid and al-Hasan.
  4. Musannaf of Imam Ibn Abi Shaibah [15] from some 13 different isnads.
  5. Qiyam ul-lail[16] of Imam Muhammad ibn Nasr al-Marwazi from: Sa’eeb ibn Yazid, Yazid ibn Ruman, Ibn Mas’ud, A’mash al-Kufi, Ibn Sirin, Malik, al-Shafi’i and others.

A selection of the scholars of Hadith who authenticated and used al-Bayhaqi’s narrations as a proof for 20 rak’ahs of Taraweeh

  1. Imam Yahya al-Nawawi (d. 676 AH)He has authenticated the narration recorded and mentioned above from al-Bayhaqi’s Marifatus-Sunan, in his book al-Khulasa – this was mentioned by Hafiz al-Zayla’i in Nasb ur-Rayah (see above). Besides this narration, he has also recorded the alternative narration recorded by Imam al-Bayhaqi in his Sunan al-Kubra.He has declared this variant narration to be a decisive argument and proof for the Shafi’i Madhhab, as well as saying: “Its Isnad is Sahih”, in his voluminous work: al-Majmu’ Sharh al-Muhadhhab [17].
  2. Imam Jamaluddin Yusuf al-Zayla’i (d. 762 AH)We have mentioned above that Hafiz al-Zayla’i in his analysis of the narration’s found in the Hanafi fiqh book: al-Hidaya, has recalled the narration from al-Bayhaqi’s Marifatus-Sunan, and quoted Imam al-Nawawi as his authority to declare this narration to be Sahih.
  3. Imam Badruddin al-Ayni (d. 855 AH)He said in his famous commentary to Sahih al-Bukhari: Umdat ul-Qari[18] :

    “The argument of our companions (the Hanafi scholars) as well as the Shafi’is and Hanbalis is what al-Bayhaqi has related with an authentic chain of transmission (Sahih Isnad)…”

  4. Imam Ali al-Qari (d. 1014 AH)He has noted in Sharhul-Nuqayah[19] :

    “Imam al-Bayhaqi has reported on genuine authority (Sahih) the performing of 20 rak’ahs of Taraweeh during the periods of Umar, Uthman and Ali (may Allah be pleased with them), and hence there has been consensus on it.”

  5. Imam Kamaluddin ibn al-Humam (d. 861 AH)Imam Ibn al-Humam asserts that it has been established from genuine authority (sahih) that the Companions and their Successors used to say 20 rak’ahs of Taraweeh during the auspicious time of Umar (radiallahu anhu); this authority of Yazid ibn Ruman (as in Imam Malik’s narration) has been reported from Sa’eeb ibn Yazid that, “During Umar’s auspicious time we used to say 20rak’ahs.” The genuineness of this authority has been verified by Imam Nawawi in the synopsis [20].
  6. Imam Taqi al-Din as-Subki (d. 756 AH)
  7. Zayn al-Din al-Iraqi (d. 806 AH) and
  8. Jalaluddin as-Suyuti (d. 911 AH)According to Imam Abdal Hayy Lucknawi[21] in his work Tuhfatul Akhyar[22], Imam Nawawi, Iraqi and Suyuti[23] have all considered Bayhaqi’s narration as reported in his Sunan al-Kubra to be Sahih.Shaykh Habibur Rahman al-A’zami has also affirmed that Nawawi, Iraqi and Suyuti have declared Imam al-Bayhaqi’s narration to be Sahih. He has also reported that Imam al-Subki [24] and Mullah Ali al-Qari have both declared the alternative narration recorded by Bayhaqi in his Marifatus Sunan to be Sahih[25].
  9. Imam Muhammad Shauq Nimawi (d. 1322 AH)We have mentioned previously that Shaykh Nimawi has declared Imam al-Bayhaqi’s narration to be Sahih in Athar al-Sunan [26].
  10. Imam Ibrahim al-Halabi (d. 956 AH)He has noted in al-Kabiri[27] :

    “The argument of the majority of people is the report which Imam al-Bayhaqi has reported with sound authority (Sahih), that during Umar as well as Uthman and Ali’s (may Allah be pleased with them), 20 rak’ahs was performed.”


Other contemporary

Other prominent scholars who have used Imam al-Bayhaqi’s narrations, besides other proofs include: Shaykh Habibur Rahman al-A’zami (see above), Shaykh Isma’il Ansari (see later), Shaykh al-Muqri in Tahqeeq al-Taraweeh, Shaykh Zafar Ahmad Uthmani in his monumental I’la as-Sunan[28], Shaykh Abdur Rahim Lajpuri in Fatawa al-Rahimiyya[29], Shaykh Ahmad Khan in Ja’al Haqq[30], Shaykh Taqi al-Uthmani in Dars-e-Tirmidhi[31] and many others.

A writer once claimed that Imam al-Bukhari held the view that the rak’ahs of Taraweeh were eight, excluding the witr. What is surprising to note is that despite his bold ascription of this view to Imam al-Bukhari, he did not furnish one shed of proof or reference to the works of Imam al-Bukhari to verify his claim.

On the contrary, the commentators of Sahih al-Bukhari, like Hafiz Ibn Hajar and Hafiz al-Ayni have not ascribed any view for 8 rak’ahs to Imam al-Bukhari to our knowledge. What is unsurprising to note is that the two aforementioned scholars of Hadith have mentioned the proofs in favour of 20 rak’ahs. One may raise the catechism – if Imam al-Bukhari had held the view ascribed to him, would there be no doubt that his great student, Imam Abu Isa al-Tirmidhi[32], would not have failed to mention this?

For we know that Imam al-Tirmidhi only knew of either 20 or 41 rak’ah[33] in his time.

He has recorded in al-Jami us-Sahih, that Umar[34], Ali (may Allah be pleased with them) and other Companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to perform 20rak’ahs of Taraweeh, as well as saying that Sufyan al-Thauri (d. 161 AH), Abdullah ibn al-Mubarak (d. 181 AH) and al-Shafi’i (d. 204 AH) held the same view. He has also quoted Imam al-Shafi’i as saying that he saw the people of Makkah performing 20 rak’ahs of Taraweeh.

The only proof to suggest that the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) performed 20 rak’ahs has been reported on the authority of Abdullah ibn Abbas (radiallahu anhu):

Verily, the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) in the month of Ramadan, used to perform 20 rak’ahs and the witr (afterwards) without congregation.”[35]

This narration has been shown to have a weak (da’eefisnad by the verifying scholars like al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani [36], Hafiz al-Zayla’i and others, due to the presence of the narrator: Abu Shaiba[37] Ibrahim ibn Uthman. He was the grandfather of the Imam of Hadith: Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shaiba, as well as being a Qadi; but as for his status as a reporter of Hadith, he has been declared to be discarded (matrook) by Hafiz Ibn Hajar in Taqreeb ul-Tahdhhib[38] and al-Bayhaqi has declared him to be weak in al-Sunan al-Kubra[39].

One may wish to note that al-Albani has gone to the added length of declaring Ibn Abbas’ narration to be Maudu (fabricated) [40], whereas no previous scholars of Hadith have gone beyond declaring its isnad to be da’eef (weak). This is nothing strange, for al-Albani usually goes to the added lengths and extremities of declaring narrations which do not suit his whims and desires to be either da’eef or maudu.

An interesting study prepared and published on this issue by a Shaykh who is said to have memorized the six most authentic collections of Hadith, is available to verify this assertion.

Let us now see what a number of Imams of sacred law have said about the aforementioned narration from Ibn Abbas (radiallahu anhu).

  1. Imam Ahmad al-Tahtawi[41] has said in Sharh Durr al-Mukhtar[42]

    On the authority of Ibn Abbas’ statement, 20 rak’ahs of Taraweeh has been estblished from the Holy Prophet’s (peace be upon him) practice.

  2. Shaykh Abdal Haqq al-Dehlawi[43] has been quoted by the author of Fatawa Rahimiyya [44] as follows: “Shaykh Abdul Haqq Muhaddith of Delhi writes in his book, Fath-e-Sirr-ul-Mannan:

    The obvious thing is that, according to the holy Companions, the Holy Prophet’s (peace be upon him) saying 20 rak’ahs had been established, as is mentioned in Ibn Abbas’ tradition, and for this reason Umar (radiallahu anhu) adopted 20 rak’ahs . . .

    He also quoted Shaykh Abdal Haqq as saying from his book: Ma sabata minas Sunnah[45],

    According to our belief, the taraweeh consists of 20 rak’ahs, for Bayhaqi has reported with sound authority that the holy Companions (may Allah be pleased with them) used to perform 20 rak’ahs during Umar’s time; moreover, this practice continued during Uthman and Ali’s (may Allah be pleased with them) periods also.‘”

  3. Shaykh Abdur Rahim continued to say in his Fatawa:

    The fact is that Hadrat Ibn Abbas and Hadrat Umar are both Companions; there is no ‘weak’ narrator between them, wherefore Ibn Abbas’ tradition may be called weak and the Companion’s action may be considered to be based on a weak tradition. Their action was based on a sound basis; how can those who follow them be called ‘the deluded’? In short, according to the Companion’s reckoning, the afore said hadith is not at all weak, though, due to the inclusion later of a weak narrator. Ibrahim ibn Uthman may be according to the latter-day authorities called weak ‘by way of narration’, but ‘intelligibly’ it must be authentic because the well-guided Caliphs and other Companion’s conformity to and continuance of 20 rak’ahs is the proof of its being reliable.

    Allamah Bahrul-Ulum[46] says:

    The Companions continued conformity to 20 rak’ahs is the context and sign of the soundness of this tradition.’

In support of what we have mentioned, let us quote to you what a leader of Salafiyyism has mentioned in his book: Criticism of Hadith among Muslims with reference to Sunan Ibn Maja[47] :

Shafi’i also recognizes a weak Hadith as authentic (sahih) if it is found to be accepted by the whole ummah (see al-Sakhawi: Fath al-Mugith). But he does not accept Malik’s view of restricting the practise to the people of Madinah. According to the later scholars of the Hanafi school like Ibn al-Humam, a Hadith will be declared Sahih, if it is supported by the practise of the Ummah (see Abdal Rashid Nu’mani: Ma tamusu ilaihe al-Haja, p. 18). Among traditionalists, Tirmidhi often remarks, after quoting a less authentic Hadith:

‘It is being practised by the people of learning (Ahl-ul-Ilm).’ Suyuti deduces: ‘It indicates that the Hadith is supported by the sayings of the people of learning. More than one scholar has said that a Hadith is declared Sahih if supported by the sayings of the people of learning, even if it lacks a proper Isnad (see Suyuti: al-Ta’aqubat, folio 20).'”

In closing this section, consider what Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah) said to his student Imam Abu Yusuf (rahiamhullah). Shaykh Anwar Shah Kashmiri stated in Fayd ul-Bari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari:

Imam Abu Yusuf (rahimahullah) asked Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah), ‘Did Hadrat Umar (radiallahu anhu) have any compact from the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) for 20 rak’ahs of Taraweeh?’ The Imam replied, ‘Hadrat Umar (radiallahu anhu) was not one to invent on his own; certainly he had some proof for this!'” [48]


Ijma us-Sahabah

A number of Imams of sacred law have inferred from the evidences available, that there is a definite consensus of the Companions (Ijma us-Sahabah)[49] on this issue. For the readers benefit we will provide some quotes below (including one from a “Salafi” writer).

  1. Imam Ali ul-Qari al-Hanafi (d. 1014 AH)He said in Sharh ul-Nuqayah[50]:

    Imam Bayhaqi has reported on genuine authority (sahih) about the performance of 20 rak’ahs of Taraweeh during the periods of Umar, Uthman and Ali (may Allah be pleased with them), and hence there has been consensus (Ijma) on it.

  2. Shaykh ul-Islam Ibn Hajar al-Haytami (d. 974 AH)Allamah Abdal Hayy Lucknawi has reported in Tuhfat ul-Akhyar[51] and in his Majmu’ Fatawa[52], the fact that Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-Haytami has declared Ijma us-Sahabah on the rak’ahs of Taraweeh being twenty.
  3. Imam Muwaffaq al-Din Ibn Qudama al-Maqdisi (d. 620)The leading Imam of the Hanbalis in his time has declared in his famous book of fiqh: al-Mughni[53] :

    There has been the Companion’s consensus (Ijma us-Sahabah) on 20 rak’ahs of Taraweeh.

  4. Shaykh Bahrul-Ulum Abdul Ali ibn Nizamuddin (d. 1235)He said in Rasa’il ul-Arkan[54]:

    Then there was unanimity regarding the 20 rak’ahs.

  5. Shah Abdul Aziz Dehlawi[55] (d. 1824 CE)He has declared in his Majmu’ Fatawa Azizi [56] :

    Thereafter, they (the Companions) adopted twenty (rak’ahs of Taraweeh) and three rak’ahs (of witr), on which number consensus had been formed.

  6. Shaykh Qutubuddin Khan (d. 1289 AH):
    He has stated in his commentary to the Hadith collection known as Mishkat ul-Masabih: Madhahir ul-Haqq [57] :

    But the Companions consensus was formed on this that the Taraweeh consists of 20 Rak’ahs.

  7. Imam Kamaluddin ibn al-Humam (d. 861 AH)He has said in Fathul-Qadir[58] :

    At last unanimity was formed on 20 rak’ahs of prayer and this alone is in succession.

  8. Imam Malik ibn Anas (d. 179 AH)It was written in the most authentic record of Imam Malik’s most accurate sayings[59], known as al-Mudawwanah al-Kubrah:

    Ibn al-Qasim said, ‘The rak’ahs (of taraweeh) with witr are thirty nine.’ Imam Malik said, ‘This is what the people have agreed upon from amongst the predecessors, and the people have not stopped doing it.’” [60]

  9. Shaykh Shabir Ahmad al-Uthmani (d. 1369 AH)Shaykh Abdur Rahim said in his Fatawa[61] :

    Allamah Shabir Ahmad Uthmani says that none of the Companions ever took exception to 20 rak’ahs, and hence all of them were unanimous on twenty rak’ahs.[62]

  10. Nawab Siddiq Hasan Khan Bhopali (d. 1307 AH)

    He was one of the leading personalities of the “Salafi” movement in India. It has been recorded by him in his Awnu’l Bari[63] :

    The practice of 20 rak’ahs established during Hadrat Umar’s time has been considered by the Ulama as consensus.

    All praise be to Allah, the synopsis of the proofs, their authenticity and the resulting of Ijma us-Sahabah, has been demonstrated by way of recoursing to some of the most reputable scholars of the various Madhhabs of this blessed Ummah.

    I (Ahmed ibn Muhammad) asked my teacher, the faqih, Shaykh Muhammad Asaddar Ali (b. 1911), may Allah preserve him: “What do you say about those people who claim to be the followers of the pious predecessors (Salaf us-Salihin), but insist on praying 8 rak’ahs of Taraweeh year in year out?” He replied:

    I take it you are referring to those people who go around with the title ‘Salafi’ over their heads. I will say a few things about these pseudo-Salafites. They are violators of the Companions (may Allah be pleased with them) consensus on this and other issues – just as their master Ibn Taymiyya was; and the scholars of the past have declared the violators of the Ijma us-Sahabah to be either corrupt innovators or even unbelievers – depending on the nature of the question. The Muhaddith, Shaykh Abdal Hayy Lucknawi (rahimahullah) has declared in his Taliqatul-Hidaya[64] : One who performs 8 rak’ahs of Taraweeh will be an abandoner of the insisted sunnah.’ So, if you come across a man who has been shown the proofs and what the vast majority of scholars, including the Imams like Abu Hanifah, Malik, Shafi’i and Ahmad ibn Hanbal have said; but still persists on avoiding the Companions unanimity on 20 rak’ahs of Taraweeh, and prefers 8 rak’ahs – then know that he is not a Salafi, rather a follower of his desires and avoider of the Companion’s (may Allah be pleased with them) unanimous practice. And Allah knows best.

    O believers, have we not heard that Allah has said:

    O you who believe, Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, And those charged with authority among you. If you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day: That is best, and most suitable for final determination” [65]

    O believers, have we not heard that Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) has said on two occasions:

    Hold fast to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the Rightly Guided Caliphs[66], clamp your molars upon it, avoid new novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is misguidance.” [67]

    Allah will never let my Ummah agree upon misguidance, and the hand of Allah is over the group (Jama’ah), so follow the great mass of believers (Sawad ul-‘Azam), and whoever dissents from them departs to hell.” [68]

    We will finish this section by mentioning the titles of two books written on this issue. The first is a book written by a Qadi at the Shariah court in Medinah al-Munawwara, as well as being a lecturer in the Holy Prophet’s (peace and blessings be upon him) mosque – Shaykh Atiyya Muhammad Salim, and the second is by – Shaykh Isma’il ibn Muhammad al-Ansari. As the title below suggests, al-Ansari’s book is a refutation of al-Albani’s research and views on this issue.

    1. Al-Taraweeh – Akthar min alf Aam fi Masjid al-Nabi alaihis-salatu wa sallam[69].
    2. Tashih Hadith Salatul– Taraweeh Ishrin Rak’ah wa’l Radd ala al-Albani fi Tadaeefah[70].

    Finally, the reader may be interested to know that even today, just as in the time of the Salaf us-Salihin (may Allah be well pleased with them), 20 rak’ahs of taraweeh is still being adhered to in Makkah and Madinah.

May Allah keep us on the practice of the Companions and guide those who deliberately avoid so and claim to be on the path of the righteous Salaf. Amin.

VIDEO PROOF:

1: 8 or 20 rak’ahs for Tarawih prayers?


 Notes/References

  1. The view that Imam’s Abu Hanifah, Malik, Shafi’i, Ibn Hanbal and Dawud al-Zahiri all preferred 20 rak’ahs of taraweeh excluding the witr has been mentioned by Qadi Ibn Rushd in Bidayat al-Mujtahid (1/239).
  2. He was a famous Hanafi Hafiz of Hadith, as well as being one of the teachers of Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani. He died in the year 762 AH, rahimahullah.
  3. 2/154, Majlis al-Ulama, India, 4 vols. 1357 AH.
  4. The full title is al-Marifatus-Sunan wa’l athar.
  5. 2/154, footnote 2.
  6. 2/496.
  7. A group of medium sized chapters from the Qur’an.
  8. His full name was Muhammad Shauq al-Nimawi; (d. 1322 AH – rahimahullah).
  9. 2/54.
  10. He died in the year 975 AH, rahimahullah.
  11. 4/284, no. 5787 (8 vols. 1st edn; Hyderabad, India, 1312-14 AH), reported by him on the authority of the Muhaddith, Ibn Man’i.
  12. This report is very similar to Bayhaqi’s narration (see Muwatta, 6.2, no. 5, p. 48, English edn.).
  13. 2/496-7.
  14. 4/260-3, no’s. 7730-1 & 7733.
  15. 2/392-4. Printed in Hyderabad, India, 1387/1967.
  16. PP. 91-2, India, 1320 AH.
  17. 4/32-3, printed with Imam al-Rafi’i’s (d. 623 AH) Fath al-Aziz and Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani’s Talkhis ul-habir in the footnotes; Idara al-Tibat al-Muniriyyah, Egypt.
  18. 7/178, Idara al-Tibat al-Muniriyyah, Egypt.
  19. 1/104.
  20. Quoted in Fatawa Rahimiyya (1/241) of Mufti Abdur Rahim; on the authority of Ibn al-Humam’s Fath al-Qadir (1/407).
  21. He was a celebrated Indian Muhaddith who has also been recognised by the “Salafiyya” for his services to Islam. He passed away in 1304 AH. Rahimahullah.
  22. P. 192, quoted in Is Taraweeh 20 raka’ats? p. 22, Madrasah Arabia Islamia, Azadville, South Africa.
  23. According to the aforementioned booklet (Is Taraweeh 20 raka’ats?), p. 5; Imam Nawawi has authenticated Bayhaqi’s narration (from his Sunan) in al-Khulasah, al-Iraqi has authenticated it in Sharh Taqreeb, and Suyuti has authenticated it in his book on Taraweeh: Masabeeh.
  24. See his Sharh Minhaj.
  25. See Shaykh al-A’zami’s Raka’at Taraweeh, p. 63, Ma’arif press, Azamgarh, India.
  26. 2/54.
  27. P. 388.
  28. 7/47, chapter on Taraweeh.
  29. 1/235-300.
  30. PP. 105-114 .
  31. 1/651-664.
  32. He passed away in the year 279 AH. Rahimahullah.
  33. The practice of 41 rak’ahs was that of the people of Madinah in the time of the Caliph Umar ibn Abdul Aziz and Imam Malik ibn Anas (may Allah be pleased with them). It is in reality 20 rak’ahs, for the people of Madinah used to perform an extra 4 rak’ahs without congregation,(after the performance of the standard 4 rak’ahs); hence this amounts to an extra 16 rak’ahs on top of the standard 20rak’ahs. After this they would perform 3 rak’ahs of witr, and sometimes another 2 rak’ahs of nafl on top, making a total of 41rak’ahs (20 rak’ahtaraweeh + 16 nafl + 3 witr + 2 nafl = 41). The reason why the people of Medinah introduced an additional 16rak’ahs was due to the fact that the people of Makkah would make tawaf around the Ka’bah after every 4 rak’ahs of taraweeh, hence the Madinans wanted to compensate for this. Allah knows best. See Shaykh Anwar Shah Kashmiri’s: Tirmidhi al-ma’ruf ba arfash shazzi (1/329) for details.
  34. 3/170, Ahmad Shakir edition, edited by Fu’ad Abdal Baqi, Maktaba Faisalia, Makkah.
  35. This narration has been collected by Bayhaqi in al-Sunan al-Kubra (2/496), Ibn Abi Shaiba in al-Musannaf (2/394), Ibn Adi in al-Kamil (1/2), Tabarani in al-Kabeer (3/148), Ibn Manda in al-Muntakhab min al-fawaid (2/268), Baghawi in Majmu as-Sahaba, Musnad Abd ibn Humaid and others.
  36. See Ibn Hajar’s Talkhis ul-habir fi takhreej ahadith al-Rafi’i al-kabir (1/119) and Al-Matalib al-‘Aliyya (1/146, no. 534) or Zaylai’sNasb ur-Rayah (2/153).
  37. He passed away in the year 235 AH. His Musannaf has been printed in some 15 volumes.
  38. 1/39, no. 241.
  39. 2/496.
  40. See his “al-Da’eefah“, (2/35, no. 560), 3rd edn; Maktaba al-Islamia, Amman, 1406 AH.
  41. He was a leading Egyptian Hanafi scholar who has written a number of well known and regularly used commentaries to classical Hanafi fiqh texts. He passed away in the year 1231/1816 CE. Rahimahullah.
  42. 1/466.
  43. d. 1052 AH in India.
  44. Mufti Abdur Rahim Lajpuri, 1/280, Maktaba Rahimiyyah, Rander, India.
  45. P. 223.
  46. He died in 1235/1820 CE, rahimahullah. Shaykh Abdur Rahim has quoted this statement from his book Rasa’il ul-Arkan, p. 138.
  47. P. 131, Hasan, Suhaib, Al-Qur’an society, 2nd edn; 1407/1986.
  48. This report is also found in Imam al-Shurunbulali’s Maraqi ul-Falah, p. 81, and Imam Ibn Nujaim al-Misri’s Bahr ur-Ra’iq, 2/66.
  49. Ijma us-Sahabah is the third A NAME=”49″>Ijma us-Sahabah is the third source of Islamic law after the Qur’an and Sunnah.
  50. 1/104.
  51. P. 197.
  52. 1/182.
  53. 1/803.
  54. P. 138.
  55. He was the son of the famous Indian scholar: Shah Waliullah.
  56. 1/126.
  57. 1/433.
  58. 1/470; quoted in Fatawa Rahimiyya (1/245).
  59. This book contains the direct questions asked by Imam Malik’s two famous disciples: Ibn al-Qasim and Ibn Wahb to their teacher. It was compiled by Ibn al-Qasim’s student: Qadi Sahnoon (see 1/193-4).
  60. The reason for praying 39 rak’ahs has been explained previously. The fact that Imam Malik preferred this number has been verified by the Maliki Qadi: Ibn Rushd (d. 595 AH) in Bidayat al-Mujtahid (1/239). He has also quoted a narration from Ibn Abi Shaibah proving 39 rak’ahs was in vogue during the caliphate of Umar ibn Abdul Aziz.
  61. 1/249.
  62. Quoted from his Fathul-Mulhim Sharh Sahih al-Muslim, (2/320).
  63. 4/307, quoted in Fatawa Rahimiyya, (1/245).
  64. 1/131.
  65. Qur’an 4:59.
  66. Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali (may Allah be pleased with them).
  67. A Sahih Hadith recorded in (no. 4590), Sunan al-Tirmidhi (5/43, no. 2676), Sunan Ibn Majah (1/15-6, no. 42), Sunan al-Darimi (no. 96), Ibn Abi Aasim in al-Sunnah (no. 54), Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal in his Musnad (4/126), al-Hakim in al-Mustadrak (1/95-6) and Ibn Hibban in his Sahih (1/166, no. 5).
  68. A narration authenticated and reported by al-Hakim (1/116), and al-Dhahabi agreed with him. A very similar report has been recorded by al-Tirmidhi (4/2167). Imam al-Munawi said in commentary to Tirmidhi’s Hadith: (Allah’s hand is over the Jama’ah) meaning his protection and preservation of them, signifying that the collectivity of the people of Islam are in Allah’s fold, so be also in Allah’s shelter, in the midst of them, and do not separate yourselves from them. (And whoever descents from them departs to hell) meaning that whoever diverges from the overwhelming majority concerning what is lawful or unlawful and on which the Community does not differ has slipped off the path of guidance and this will lead him to hell. (see Imam al-Azizi’s: al-Siraj al-Munir Sharh al-Jami us-Saghir, 3/449, cf. Reliance of the Traveller, p. 25).
  69. Printed by Maktaba Dar al-Turath, Madinah al-Munawwarah, 1st edn. 1407/1987.
  70. Printed by Maktaba Rashidia, Pakistan

The Blessed Month of Ramadan al Kareem

2014_ramadan_kareem_photos “O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you in order that you might learn piety . . . . The month of Ramadan is that wherein was revealed the Qur’an, as a guidance to mankind, and clear proofs of the guidance, and the Criterion. So, whoever among you witnesses the month should fast.” [Al-Qur’an 2:183, 185] 


“Every deed of the Son of Adam is for himself, except fasting – it is for Me, and I shall reward it.”

[Muslim, Abu Dawud, Nasa’i, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah]

Hadrat Abu Hurairah (RadiAllahu Anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ has said, “When Ramadan begins, the doors of heaven are opened.” A version has, “the doors of Paradise are opened and the doors of Hell are closed, and the Satans are tied with chains.” Another version has, “the doors of Mercy are opened.”

[Sahih al-Bukhari Vol 1, Page 255 and Sahih al-Muslim, Vol 1, Page 346]

Hadrat Shaykh ‘Abd al-Haq Muhaddith-e-Dehlwi (rah) comments:

The meaning of the “Doors of heaven” being opened is the continuous descending of mercy, and the ascension of good deeds to the Court of the Almighty without any obstacle (preventing it from ascending). It also means the acceptance of (permissible) supplications. The meaning of the “doors of Paradise” being opened is being encouraged and granted the ability to perform good deeds, and the acceptance of these good deeds. The meaning of the “Doors of Hell” being closed is the protection of the souls of those who fast, from things which have been forbidden by the Islamic Law, and rescue from the things which provoke a person on doing bad deeds. It also means to break the desire which the heart has of things of lust. The meaning of Satan being tied with chains is the sealing off of all the ways by which evil whispers enter the mind. [Ashi’ah al-Lam’at]

Hadrat Abu Hurairah (RadiAllahu Anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ has said, “Whoever fasts duringRamadan with faith and seeking his reward (from Allah) all his past sins will be forgiven. Whoever prays during the night in Ramadan with faith seeking his reward (from Allah) all his past sins will be forgiven. And whoever passes Lailat-ul-Qadr in prayer with faith and seeking his reward (from Allah the Most Exalted) all his past sins will be forgiven.” 

[Sahih al-Bukhari Vol 1, Page 255 and Sahih al-Muslim, Vol 1, Page 259]

Hadrat Abu Hurairah (RadiAllahu Anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ has said, “When the first nightof Ramadan comes, the satans and the rebellious Jinn are chained, the doors of hell are closed and not one of them is opened (during the entire the month of Ramadan); the doors of Paradise are opened and not on of them is closed (the entire month of Ramadan); and a crier calls, ‘Those who desire what is good, come forward, and those who desire evil refrain from it’, and many people are freed from Hell by Allah, and that happens every night.”

[Tirmidhi, Vol 1, Page 153 and Ibn Maajah, Vol 1, Page 118]

Hadrat Salman al-Farisi (RadiAllahu Anhu) reported that on the last day of Sha’ban the Messenger of Allah ﷺ delivered a sermon. He said, “O people, a great month, a blessed month, a month wherein there is a night which is better than a thousand months has come to you. Allah has made the observance of fasting during it as obligatory, and the standing (in prayer) in its nights as voluntary. Whoever draws near to Allah during it with some good (voluntary, optional) act he is like the one who fulfils an obligatory duty in another month, and whoever fulfils an obligatory duty in it is like the one who fulfils seventy obligatory duties in another month.

[Mishkat, Page 173]

It is the month of endurance and the reward of endurance is Paradise. It is the month of sharing with others, and a month in which the believer’s provision is increased. Whoever gives one who has been fasting something with which to break his fast it shall result in the forgiveness of his sins and it shall save him from Hell, and he will have a reward equal to his without his reward being diminished in any respect.”

We said, “O Messenger of Allah, no one from among us has the means to give one who is fasting something with which to break his fast. He said, “Allah gives this reward to him who gives one who is fasting some milk, or a date, or a drink of water with which to break his fast; and whoever gives a full meal to one who is fasting Allah will give him the drink from my Pond (fountain – Kauthar) and he will not feel the thirst till he enters Paradise.It is a month whose beginning is Mercy, whose middle is Forgiveness, and whose end is Freedom from Hell. Whoever makes things easy for his slave during it, Allah will forgive him and free him from Hell.”

Hadrat Abu Hurairah (RadiAllahu Anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah  has said, “If one (who is fasting) does not give up falsehood and action according to it, Allah has no need that he should give up his food and his drink.” 

[Sahih al-Bukhari Vol 1, Page 255]

Shaykh ‘Abd Al-Haq Muhaddith-e-Dehlwi (rah) comments:

This means that his fast shall not be accepted, as the main purpose of fast being made obligatory on a Muslim is not that one stays hungry and thirsty; but in fact the main purpose is to break the desire for lust, and to cool the fire of selfishness, so that the soul instead of being inclined towards the desires of lust, it becomes obedient towards the commands of The Almighty. [Ashi’ah al-Lam’at Vol 2 Page 85]

Hadrat Anas ibn Malik al-Ka’bi (RadiAllahu anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ has said, “Allah has remitted half the prayer to the traveller ; and fasting to the traveller, the woman who is suckling an infant and the woman who is pregnant.” 

[Tirmidhi, Vol 1, Page 152 and Sunan Abi Dawud, Vol 1, Page 327]

Hadrat Shaykh ‘Abd al-Haq Muhaddith-e-Dehlwi (rah) comments:The Islamic Law allowing the omission of fast for the breast-feeding and the pregnant woman is only in the situation when fasting shall harm or damage herself or the child (otherwise there is no permission not to fast). [Ashi’ah al-Lam’ah Vol 2 Page 94]

Hadrat Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (RadiAllahu anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ has said, “Whoever fasts during Ramadan then follows it with six days in Shawwal, it will be like a perpetual fast .” 

[Sahih al-Muslim, Vol 1, Page 369]


Warning against abandoning fasting in Ramadan

“Whoever breaks his fast in Ramadan without a [valid] concession or illness, he cannot repay it, even if he were to fast the rest of his life.”

[Tirmidhi, Nasa’i, Ibn Majah]


RULES RELATED TO FASTING….

THE OBLIGATION OF FASTING

a) The time for fasting is from the rising of the second dawn until the setting of the sun.

b) Fasting is: abstention from eating, drinking and sexual intercourse by day with the intention.

THE INTENTION

The fasting is valid with an intention from the night, but if one did not intend until the morning, the intention suffices him between [dawn] and {the middle of the day}.

1.  Things which invalidates fasting and requires full recompense

1.1 If someone intentionally does one of the following without any valid excuse(see 6 below)

a) Does not fast at all

b) Breaks fast by eating, drinking and sexual activities

c) Assuming that cupping has broken ones fast thus quit fasting for the day.

1.2 Expiation for the above is to

a) Fast unceasingly for two months (60 days), if one breaks fast during this one has to start anew.

b) If unable to do so, it is to feed 60 needy persons two full meal

c) If unable to do so, it is to free one slave.
1.3 Things that break fast and requires one to fast similar numbers of days in recompense

a) If something is entered into the body during the hours when one is supposed to fast, irrelevant of how it entered into the body.(see 5)

  • To eat something which is not food such as stone particle or smoking anything.
  • When water enters stomach while gargling
  • When one is fed by force even when one is sleeping or unconscious
  • Inject medicine, place them on wounds which eventually gets in.
  • Eating by mistake thinking it is still night or iftar time is due while it is not.
  • Involuntary full mouth vomiting and subsequent swallowing of it or part of it.
  • When one is force into sexual intercourse or when one is sleeping or unconscious

b) Fasting without intention
c) Breaking (iftar) fast without the intention of doing so.
d) Lustful kissing of ones spouse
e) Emission of semen due to touching, kissing, masturbation.
f) Intentional vomiting.
2. Offensive acts during fasting

a) Backbiting, slander
b) To lie or deceive
c) To use abusive language
d) Not having iftar
e) Taste a food without swallowing it, using toothpaste.
f) Gargling water due to thirsts or hot weather.
g) Wrapping oneself with wet clothes.
h) Throwing up intentionally
i) Weakening the body (e.g. strenuous sport)
j) Gathering saliva and swallowing it;
3. Days when fasting is forbidden

a) Day of Eid al Fitr (Eid of Ramadan)
b) During Eid al ADHa, 10, 11, 12 and 13 of month of Dhul Hijjah
4. Events when it is allowed to break the fast and fast later the similar number of days

a) If fasting aggravates health-condition
b) Snake biting
c) Thirsts due to newly developed disease
d) Genuine danger for a pregnant mother, or for her fetus.
e) Genuine fear for the life of a suckling infant
f) Reason to fear death
g) Menstruation
h) If one is a traveller

5. Things that do not break fast

a) Those things which would otherwise break fast does not do so when one is unaware of the fact that one is fasting (complete forgetfulness of fasting).

b) Entrance of insects (i.e mosquitos), smoke and dust from natural environment does not break fast.

c) Wet dream, swallowing ones own saliva when still in the mouth, brushing teeth, smearing oil, ointment on unwounded body do not break fast. or used antimony [in his eyes],

d) If one is overcome by vomiting, his fast is not broken.

6. Etiquettes and desirable practices

  1. Preparing for the month.
  2. Bringing to mind the bounty of Allah.
  3. Purifying one’s intention
  4. Pre-dawn meal (suhur) as late as safely possible.
  5. Not unnecessarily delaying the breakingof the fast.
  6. Performing salat al-Maghrib soon after breakign the fast, then returning to eat.
  7. Making du`a at the time of breaking the fast.
  8. Enabling others to break their fasts.
  9. Abstaining from all forbidden deeds.
  10. Maintaining a pleasant disposition.
  11. Abundant reciting of the Qur’an.
  12. Abundant charity.
  13. Performing tarawih prayers.

7. Miscellaneous

a) The intention of fasting can be made as late as just before noon, if one forgets to do so during the previous night. If one passes noon without making the intention ones fasting is invalid.(1.3b)

b) One should eat before the day breaks even when one is not hungry.

c) For a woman whenever during the day menstruation stops she should be observing fasting even though it is not a fast for her. She should fast if it happens just before morning and did not have enough time to take shower and eat.

d) If a woman menstruates, she stops fasting and makes up [fasting for the days of menstruation].

e)  Someone who lost consciousness in Ramadan does not make up the day on which the loss of consciousness occurred, but he makes up that which came after it.

f) If a traveller arrives, or a [menstruating] woman attains purity with part of the day [remaining], they abstain [from those things which invaliate fasting] for the rest of that day.

May Allah keep us on the Straight Path.

Aameen.

2014_ramadan_kareem_mubarak_wallpaper ramadan_kareem_2014_wallpaper ramadan_kareem_by_mezoomar-d41r8f7 ramadan-kareem

Taken from:

1. “Anwaar al-Hadith” by Hadrat Allama Mawlana Mufti Jalal al-Din al-Qadiri al-Amjadi Radi ALLAHu Ta’ala Anho, Chapter 6, Page 152 to 157.

2. http://www.islamicacademy.org